1 To ensure that the cargo is transported from sender to destination safely and securely, it is essential that those involved in CTU movements fully comply with the proper flow of information.
2 This includes the responsibility of the packer to identify all packages packed into a CTU and to include them in all appropriate documentation.
3 Additionally, it will include a responsibility of the packer to determine the actual gross mass of the CTU and to declare any hazards that may be present for all or part of the journey.
4 Parties involved with transport are responsible for ensuring that documentation and information is provided in adequate time and using terms that are internationally accepted.
5 The functions of the supply chain are discussed in chapter 4 of this Code and can be summarized in the graphical representation shown in figure 1.1.
Figure 1.1 Typical flow of information
6 Within the terms of this Code the principal contracts are between the shipper and the carrier. Others parties such as the terminal or haulier, though actively involved, are responsible to one of these parties.
7 Figure 1.2 shows the relationship of functions at the start of the supply chain. A sender and consignor may be considered as the same function and under certain circumstances may be also referred to as the shipper. However the shipper may act as the processor of information receiving information about the cargo and the packing details from the consignor / sender and packer / consolidator respectively.
Figure 1.2 Relationship of functions
7.1 The shipper may also be the packer / consolidator receiving goods from the consignor and packing them into the CTU before despatching it to the carrier.
7.2 Finally the shipper may be the consignor, producing the goods, packing it into the CTU and then contracting the carrier to move the CTU to its destination.
7.3 There is a final combination, where the shipper combines the consignor, the packer and the carrier.
8 The shipper will arrange the transport of the goods and may arrange the cargo insurance cover. In some contracts there is an agreed location, terminal or destination where the responsibility of the shipper ends. Thereafter responsibility is transferred to the consignee or another party who may undertake the function of a shipper.
8.1 Figure 1.3 shows a typical INCOTERM published by the International Chamber of Commerce. Under this contract the shipper is responsible for all aspects of transport up until the CTU is unloaded at the port of import.
Figure 1.3 Typical sales contract term
8.2 Thereafter the consignee, or their agent who will undertake the function of a shipper, will arrange onward transport of the CTU and continue the chain of information for the shipment